Volume I of the report concludes that Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election occurred "in sweeping and systematic fashion" and "violated U. S. criminal law". It lists two methods by which Russia attempted to influence the election. Firstly, a social media campaign by the Internet Research Agency (IRA) which supported the Trump presidential campaign, attacked the Hillary Clinton presidential campaign, and aimed to “provoke and amplify political and social discord". Secondly, Russian military intelligence GRU conducted computer hacking and strategically released damaging material stolen from the Clinton campaign and Democratic Party organizations. The campaign is further stated to have "welcomed" this ongoing interference as they “expected [to] benefit electorally from information stolen and released through Russian efforts”. It also identifies links between Trump campaign officials and individuals with ties to the Russian government, about which several persons connected to the campaign made false statements and obstructed investigations. During the investigation, the special counsel recommended the indictment of former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort and his former deputy Rick Gates, and they were found guilty of criminal offenses stemming from their prior lobbying work for the Ukrainian Party of Regions. However, the investigation did not find sufficient evidence to conclude that the campaign "coordinated or conspired with the Russian government in its election-interference activities" and did not pursue charges for others beyond Manafort and Gates under statutes governing conspiracy or foreign agents. Investigators ultimately had an incomplete picture of what happened due to communications that were encrypted, deleted or unsaved, as well as testimony that was false, incomplete or declined. Mueller later stated that his investigation's conclusion on Russian interference "deserves the attention of every American".