Volume I of the report concludes that Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election occurred "in sweeping and systematic fashion" and "violated U. S. criminal law". It lists two methods by which Russia attempted to influence the election. Firstly, a social media campaign by the Internet Research Agency (IRA) which supported the Trump presidential campaign, attacked the Hillary Clinton presidential campaign, and aimed to “provoke and amplify political and social discord". Secondly, Russian intelligence GRU conducted computer hacking and strategically released damaging material stolen from the Clinton campaign and Democratic Party organizations. The report identifies links between Trump campaign officials and individuals with ties to the Russian government, about which several persons connected to the campaign made false statements and obstructed investigations. During the investigation, the special counsel recommended the indictment of former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort and his former deputy Rick Gates, and they were found guilty of criminal offenses stemming from their prior lobbying work for the Ukrainian Party of Regions. However, the investigation did not establish that the campaign "coordinated or conspired with the Russian government in its election-interference activities" and did not pursue charges for others beyond Manafort and Gates under statutes governing conspiracy or foreign agents.