The Philippine national flag has a rectangular design that consists of a white equilateral triangle, symbolizing liberty, equality, and fraternity; a horizontal blue stripe for peace, truth, and justice; and a horizontal red stripe for patriotism and valor. In the center of the white triangle is an eight-rayed golden sun symbolizing unity, freedom, people's democracy, and sovereignty. Each ray represents a province with significant involvement in the 1896 Philippine Revolution against Spain; these provinces are Manila, Bulacan, Cavite, Pampanga, Bataan, Laguna, Batangas, and Nueva Ecija (some sources specify other provinces as alternatives to some of these[a]). However, according to the Declaration of Independence and a research by UP Professor Ambeth Ocampo, the rays of the sun symbolized the first 8 provinces of the Philippines which was declared under martial law during the First Philippine Revolution. Three five-pointed stars, one for each of the triangle's points, stand for the three major island groups where the revolution started: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.