In January 2016, Viacom sued IJR Capital Investment after learning that it had applied to trademark the Krusty Krab name at the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office in December 2014, which got approved. The latter was planning to open two restaurants in Houston and Los Angeles adopting the moniker. In the lawsuit it filed against IJR, Viacom claimed the proposed restaurants would be an infringement, even though Viacom had not filed a formal trademark for the Krusty Krab name. IJR's owner, Javier Ramos Jr. , said that he thought of the name, referring to "the crust that sticks to the top of crabs when they are put in a seafood boil". He claimed not to have heard of the Krusty Krab in SpongeBob SquarePants, and chose it after checking Google and finding no restaurants using that name. A Texas federal judge ruled in January 2017 that IJR violated Viacom's rights to the SpongeBob property, citing "ownership of a trademark is established by use, not by registration. " The U. S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit decided in May 2018 that Viacom deserves trademark protection for the Krusty Krab, and that IJR cannot use it. According to the Houston Press, "The long arm of U. S. trademark law doesn't reach across international waters. Every country has its own filing process that must be followed. " Complex said, "There's one in Palestine, and there's really nothing Viacom can do about it. "