Many course themes recur throughout the series. Most are based on existing areas in the Mario franchise (Bowser's Castle being among the most prominent), but there are a number of courses that have not appeared elsewhere, yet still belong in the Mushroom Kingdom, such as Rainbow Road, which usually takes place above a city or in space. Each game in the series (following the original game) includes at least 16 original courses and up to 6 original battle arenas. Each game's tracks are divided into four "cups", or groups in which the player has to have the highest overall placing to win. Most courses can be done in three laps, except in the original game where all circuits required five laps to complete and Mario Kart Tour with only two. The first game to feature courses from previous games was Mario Kart: Super Circuit, which contained all of the tracks from the original Super NES game. Starting with Mario Kart DS, each entry in the series has featured 16 "nitro" (brand new courses introduced for said game) and 16 "retro" tracks (reappearing courses from previous Mario Kart games), spread across four cups each with four races. In Mario Kart 8, 16 additional tracks are available across two downloadable packages, eight for each package downloaded, including seven retro courses, four original courses, and five courses based on other Nintendo franchises, including Excitebike, F-Zero, The Legend of Zelda, and Animal Crossing. Mario Kart Tour introduced courses from around the world including Paris, Tokyo, London, and New York City.