Dallas Willard, most notably, in the fourth chapter of his "The Divine Conspiracy: Rediscovering Our Hidden Life in God" has proposed that the Beatitudes are not virtues or meritorious conditions. Rather, they are proclamations that the people before Jesus on the mountain are blessed (well off) because they are disciples of Jesus Christ. These proclamations are instructive in that they communicate to the hearers that many who are in a deplorable condition are blessed in spite of this because the kingdom of heaven has been opened even to them by Jesus Christ. Alfred Edersheim held a similar (or identical) view. He is quoted by Willard as saying: "It is not because a man is poor in spirit that his is the Kingdom of Heaven, in the sense that one state will grow into the other, or be its result; still less is the one the reward of the other. The connecting link is in each case Christ Himself: because He . . . "has opened the Kingdom of Heaven to all believers. " This interpretation relies on a view of Jesus' main message being the availability of the Kingdom of Heaven (see Mt 4:17). The Beatitudes then, are, according to Willard, ". . . proof that , in [Jesus], the rule of God from the heavens truly is available in life circumstances that are beyond all human hope. " This interpretation sees the Beatitudes as continuing a biblical theme of status inversion in such places as the "Song of Moses and Miriam" in Exodus 15, the prayer of Hannah in 1 Samuel 2, the story of David and Goliath in 1 Samuel 17, Jehoshaphat's prayer and battle in 2 Chronicles 20, and the "Magnificat" of the Virgin Mary in Luke 1. Also: Psalm 34, 37, and 107. Again, the inversion occurs, not because of a meritorious condition but in spite of it and by God's salvific intiative.