Primer paints may be oil- or water-based and are used to seal unpainted surfaces to prevent covering coats of paint soaking in. The appropriate type of primer should be used for the surface being painted - wood, metal, plaster or tiles. There are some 'all purpose primers' available which are designed for two or more of these surfaces.
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You'll need a large compressor, not just the typical 20 gallon variety most of us have. This is a 60 gallon, vertical compressor with typically a 5+ hp motor. Then you'll need a decent paint gun (possibly 2; one for primer and one for color) which again is an expense. Then there's the question of where you'll paint the car. Renting a paint booth is best, but can be expensive and hard to find. You can always seal up your garage or shoot out in the wetted down driveway, but you'll inevitably get dirt and moisture into the paint.
You can tell when the bucket of paint is getting low when the airless starts pumping really loud and doesn't stop. Simply tip the nearly empty bucket of paint, at an angle so that the mesh filter is covered and wait for the airless to catch up and stop pumping. Sometimes it's just easier to just to replace the bucket of paint with the new one and when that starts going down, pour the excess from the old bucket into the new one.
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Spend some time talking to the shop manager. He should have the time to thoroughly go over your options and explain their service and pricing. Be clear on what they're doing exactly. Will they scuff your existing paint? Will they be spraying primer? Are they OK painting any loose parts like bumper-ettes? If you're changing colors be sure to discuss the door jambs, trunk area and underside of the hood. Also, get instructions from the shop in writing for proper care of your fresh paint. It will include the number of paint curing days before you can wash it, wax it or let it sit out in the weather.
The casein, which serves as the glue binder, should be soaked in 2 gallons of hot water until thoroughly softened, which should be approximately 2 hours. After dissolving the trisodium phosphate in 1 gallon of water it should be added to the casein, stirring the mixture until the casein dissolves. This solution should be mixed with the lime paste and 3 gallons of water.